Date Created: 14September2017
Platform: R/V Sally Ride
Project Number: CalCOFI 1711SR (UNOLS SR1717)
Project Title: CalCOFI Fall Survey.
Project Dates: 9 - 24 November 2017
Prepared by: Daniel Schuller, Chief Scientist, and James R Wilkinson, Integrative Oceanography Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Dated: 14 September 2017
- Cruise Instructions;
- Station Order & Coordinates;
- Chemical Inventory
- Station Activities
- Predicted Station Schedule
- Brief Summary and Project Period: Survey the distributions and abundances of pelagic fish stocks, their prey, and their biotic and abiotic environments in the area of the California Current between San Diego, California and Avila Beach, California during the period of 9-24 November 2017.
- Operating Area: From San Diego, CA to Avila Beach, CA and out 400 nautical miles. Please refer to Station Order & Coordinates PDF
Summary of Objectives: Survey the distributions and abundances of pelagic fish stocks, their prey, and their biotic and abiotic environments in the area of the California Current between San Diego, California and Avila Beach, California.
- I.C.1. Continuously sample multi-frequency acoustic backscatter using the Simrad EK80. The data will be used to estimate the distributions and abundances of coastal pelagic fishes (e.g., sardine, anchovy, and mackerel), and krill species.
- I.C.2. Continuously sample sea-surface temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll-a using a thermosalinograph. These data will be used to estimate the physical oceanographic habitats for target species.
- I.C.3. Continuously sample air temperature, barometric pressure, and wind speed and direction using an integrated weather station.
- I.C.4. Sample profiles of seawater temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, nutrients, and phytoplankton using a CTD with water-sampling rosette and other instruments at prescribed stations. Measurements of extracted chlorophyll and phaeophytin will be obtained with a fluorometer. Primary production will be measured as C14 uptake in a six hour in situ incubation. Nutrients will be measured with an auto-analyzer. These data will be used to estimate primary productivity and the biotic and abiotic habitats for target species.
- I.C.5. Sample the light intensity in the photic zone using a standard secchi disk once per day in conjunction with a daytime CTD station. These data will be used to interpret the measurements of primary production.
- I.C.6. Sample plankton using a CalBOBL (CalCOFI Bongo Oblique) at prescribed stations. These data will be used to estimate the distributions and abundances of ichthyoplankton and zooplankton species.
- I.C.7. Sample plankton using a Manta (neuston) net at prescribed stations. These data will be used to estimate the distributions and abundances of ichthyoplankton species.
- I.C.8. Sample the vertically integrated abundance of fish eggs using a Pairovet net at prescribed stations. These data will be used to quantify the abundances and distributions of fish eggs.
- I.C.9. Sample plankton using a PRPOOS (Planktonic Rate Processes in Oligotrophic Ocean Systems net) at all prescribed CalCOFI stations on lines 90.0, 86.7, 83.3 and 80.0 only. These data will be used in analyses by the LTER (Long Term Ecological Research) project.
- I.C.10. Continuously observe, during daylight hours, mammals. These data will be used to estimate the distributions and abundances of marine mammals.
- I.C.11. Deployment of four expendable wave measuring drifters at the offshore end of CalCOFI lines.
- I.D.1 Southwest Fisheries Science Center (SWFSC)
- I.D.2 Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO)
Points of Contacts:
- Diplomatic Clearances: N/A
Licenses and Permits
- All marine mammal work is covered under a federal research permit NMFS Permit 727-1915 issued to Dr. John Hildebrand of SIO.
- CDFW ON April 2, 2015 to NOAA-SWFSC-FRD-Cisco Werner (SC- 12372)
- Points of Contacts:
- Nov 6, 2017 SIO truck-preload 0900; Tuesday Nov 7 - Wednesday Nov 8: Load scientific gear Nimitz Marine Facilities (MarFac), Pt Loma
- Nov 09 0700: All cruise participants onboard
- Nov 09 0800: Depart San Diego, CA
- Nov 24 1600: Arrive San Diego, CA
- Nov 27 (Monday) 0800: Unload RV Sally Ride at MarFac
Staging and De-staging
- Staging for CalCOFI requires 2 days. Final de-staging will be conducted in San Diego, CA (MarFac).
- We request 2 laboratory vans to be craned onto the afterdeck and secured in San Diego prior to departure. The dimension of the van 1 is approximately 8x10x8 feet weighing 6500 lbs. Dimensions of GP van is approximately 8x20x8 feet weighing 8500 lbs. Power requirement is 110V.
- We request 1 Seamac electric winch to be craned onto the afterdeck and secured in San Diego prior to departure. The dimension of the winch is 4.5x4.5 feet. Power requirement is 440V 3-phase.
Operations to be conducted
II.B.1. Underway Operations
- II.B.1.a. Thermosalinograph sampling - The RV Sally Ride will provide and maintain a thermosalinograph (TSG), which is calibrated and in working order, for continuous measurement of surface water temperature and salinity.
- II.B.1.b. Acoustics: Calibration of the Simrad EK80 echosounders will hopefully be performed at the dock before the beginning of the charter on Nov 06. If dockside calibration is not possible, then ~6hrs will be allocated to calibrate in San Diego Bay. This will require acoustics calibration personnel be shuttled ashore before getting underway.
- Throughout the cruise, the EK80 echosounders will be operated at 38, 70, 120 and 200 kHz and interfaced to a data acquisition system to estimate small pelagic fish and krill biomasses between 10 and 750 m. An EK80 Adaptive Logging program (EAL) will be run continuously to detect the seabed depth and optimize the logging range while avoiding aliased seabed echoes (“false bottoms”). During daytime transit between stations, the ship will maintain a desired speed of 10 knots. The ship shall inform the Cruise Leader of any use of the vessel's sounders, as it interferes with the signals received on the EK80 that will be used continuously.
- II.B.1.c. Acoustic hydrophone: During transit between most daylight stations, an acoustic hydrophone array will be towed from the stern at a distance of 300 meters with a deck loaded winch to record sounds from marine mammals. The winch is 440V 3-phase with a deck pattern of 4.5 by 4.5 feet. Upon approaching a station, two sonobuoys will be deployed one nautical mile prior to stopping for station work.
- II.B.1.d. Visual Observations: Two or more marine mammal observers will occupy the forward observation deck during daylight hours while the ship transits between stations. At 2 miles from daylight station arrival, we request the bridge notify the observers so they can retrieve the hydrophone and prepare for station arrival. The hydrophone can be retrieved at ship’s full speed. At 1 mile prior to each daylight station marine mammal observers will deploy 2 sonobuoys.
- II.B.1.d. Expendable wave measuring drifter. Four expendable wave measuring drifters will be deployed at the offshore end of CalCOFI lines 93.3, 86.7, 90.0, and 76.7. Drifters will be deployed by ship research or science technicians as ship is coming up to speed steaming away from station.
II.B.2. Station Operations: each standard station will include the following:
- II.B.2.a. CTD/Rosette consisting of 24 10-liter hydrographic bottles will be lowered to approximately 515 meters (depth permitting) at each station to measure physical parameters and collect water at discrete depths for analysis of: salinity, nutrients, oxygen, chlorophyll, etc. It is requested that the hydraulic hoist on the port side trolley way be installed and operational.
- II.B.2.b. CalBOBL (CalCOFI Bongo Oblique): standard oblique plankton tow with 300 meters of wire out, depth permitting, using paired 505 µm mesh nets with 71 cm diameter openings. The technical requirements for this tow are: Descent wire rate of 50 meters per minute and an ascent wire rate of 20 meters per minute. All tows with ascending wire angles lower than 38° or higher than 51° in the final 100 meters of wire will be repeated. Additionally, a 45° wire angle should be closely maintained during the ascent and descent of the net frame. The port side sample will be preserved in buffered ethanol at every station.
- II.B.2.c. Manta net (neuston) tow: using a 505 µm mesh net on a frame with a mouth area of 0.1333 m². Tows are 15 minutes in duration at towing speed of approximately 1.5 - 2.0 knots. Wire angles should be kept between 15° and 25°.
- II.B.2.d. Pairovet net: will be fished from 70 meters to the surface (depth permitting) using paired 25 cm diameter 150 µm mesh nets at all stations out to and including station 70.0. The technical requirements for Pairovet tows are: Descent rate of 70 meters per minute, a terminal depth time of 10 seconds and an ascent rate of 70 meters per minute. All tows with wire angles exceeding 15° during the ascent will be repeated.
- II.B.2.e. A PRPOOS (Planktonic Rate Processes in Oligotrophic Ocean Systems) net will be taken on specific stations on line 90.0, 86.7, 83.3, and 80.0. These stations are occupied as part of the LTER (Long Term Ecological Research) project. The mesh of the PRPOOS net is 202 µm and the tow is a vertical cast up from 210 meters. The technical requirements for the PRPOOS tows are: Decent rate of 40 meters per minute, a terminal depth time of 20 seconds and an ascent rate of 50 meters per minute.
- II.B.2.f. Primary productivity: at about 1100 hours on each day a primary productivity CTD cast consisting of six 10-liter hydrographic bottles (mounted on CTD frame) will be carried out. The cast arrangement will be determined by a Secchi disc observation. This cast will be in conjunction with an already scheduled station. The purpose of the cast is to collect water from six discrete depths for daily in situ productivity experiments. Measurements of extracted chlorophyll and phaeophytin will be obtained with a fluorometer. Primary production will be measured as C14 uptake in a six hour in situ incubation. Nutrients will be measured with an auto-analyzer. All radioisotope work areas will be given a wipe test before the departure of the SIO technical staff.
- II.B.2.g. A light meter (Secchi disk) will be used to measure the light intensity in the euphotic zone once a day with the primary productivity cast and all daytime stations.
- II.B.2.h. Weather observations.
II.B.3.a. Order of Operations for each standard station:
- CTD to 515 meters with 24 bottle rosette (depth premitting)
- Secchi disk on daylight satations - secchi may be before the CTD on daily primary productivity stations which is typically between 0900-1200.
- PRPOOS net tow (lines 90.0, 86.7, 83.3 and 80.0 only).
- Pairovet net tow (on all lines out to station 70.0 but not to include near shore SCCOOS).
- Manta net tow (on all stations except for near shore SCCOOS and stations after line 76.7).
- Bongo net tow (on all stations).
- Vessel speeds are restricted on research cruises in part to reduce the risk of ship strikes with marine mammals. Transit speeds vary from 8-11 knots.
- We will have a bird observer on the flying bridge during all daylight transects.
- We will have 2 marine mammal observers on the forward observation deck during all daylight transects.
We will have a marine mammal acoustician with a towed hydrophone. The hydrophone will be towed off the stern at a distance of 300 meters between daylight stations. The hydrophone will be deployed at a ship speed of 5 knots while leaving a station. Once deployed, ship can travel at full speed. The hydrophone can be retrieved at ship’s full speed.
At 2 mile from daylight station arrival, we request the bridge notify the marine mammal observers so they can prepare for station arrival and retrieve the hydrophone.
At 1 mile prior to each daylight station marine mammal observers will deploy 2 sonobuoys. The hydrophone will be retrieved at this time.
Communication will be open to bridge during all hydrophone deployments and retrievals.
Conditions which preclude normal operations:
- In the event of poor weather conditions, we will work with the ship’s officers on developing the best strategy for completion of all stations safely.
- We have replacement gear for most operations. Equipment failure should not impact our project.
- Prior to departure, the Chief Scientist will conduct a meeting of the scientific party to train them in sample collection and inform them of project objectives. Some vessel protocols, e.g., meals, watches, etiquette, etc. will be presented by the ship’s First Mate or Resident Technician.
- II.B.1. Underway Operations